What are the Top 10 oldest language in the world
|3rd century B.C
|1200 to 586 BC
|Palestine and Israel
| 1450 and 1350 BC
|Spain and France
|14th or 15th
|1500 years old
|5th and 6th century AD.
|9th and 10th century.
Here it is brief note about this languages
1) Tamil :
Tamil language, member of the Dravidian language family, spoken primarily in South India. it’s the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and therefore the union territory of Puducherry (Pondicherry).
It’s additionally a politician language in Srilankan and Singapore and has vital numbers of speakers in Asian country, Mauritius, Fiji, and Republic of South Africa.
In 2004 Tamil was declared a classical language of Asian nation, that means that it met 3 criteria: its origins square measure associate degreecient; it’s an freelance tradition; and it possesses a substantial body of ancient literature. within the early twenty first century over sixty six million folks were Tamil speakers.
The earliest Tamil writing is genuine in inscriptions and potsherds from the fifth century BCE. 3 periods are distinguished through analyses of grammatical and lexical changes: previous Tamil (from concerning 450 BCE to 700 CE), Middle Tamil (700–1600), and fashionable Tamil (from 1600).
The Tamil orthography evolved from the Brahmi script. the form of the letters modified tremendously over time, eventually stabilising once printing was introduced within the sixteenth century atomic number 58. the main addition to the alphabet was the incorporation of Grantha letters to write down unassimilated Sanskrit words, though a number of letters with irregular shapes were standardized throughout the modern period. A script called Vatteluttu (“Round Script”) is additionally in common use.
SpokenTamil has modified considerably over time, as well as changes within the phonologic structure of words. This has created diglossia—a system during which there square measure distinct variations between informal types of a language and people that square measure utilized in formal and written contexts.
Themain regional variation is between the shape spoken in Republic of India which spoken in Jaffna (Sri Lanka), capital of a former Tamil city-state, and its surrounds. among state there square measure phonologic variations between the northern, western, and southern speech. Regional sorts of the language encounter with varieties that square measure supported class or caste.
2) Sanskrit :
Sanskrit language, (from Sanskritic language Indic, “adorned, cultivated, purified”), associate degree recent Indo-Aryan language within which the foremost ancient documents are the Vedas, composed in what’s known as religious writing Indo-Aryan.
Though sacred text documents represent the dialects then found within the northern midlands of the Indian landmass and areas instantly east therefrom, the terribly earliest texts—including the Rigveda (“The religious writing Composed in Verses”), that students typically attribute to roughly 1500 BCE—stem from the northwestern a part of the landmass, the world of the traditional seven rivers
Over its long history, Indo-Aryan has been written each in Devanāgarī script and in numerous regional scripts, like like the north (Kashmir), Bāṅglā (Bengali) within the east, Gujarātī within the west, and numerous southern scripts, together with the Grantha alphabet, that was particularly devised for Indo-Aryan texts. Indo-Aryan texts still be printed in regional scripts, though in fairly recent times Devanāgarī has become additional usually used.
Sanskrit isn’t restricted to Hindu compositions. it’s additionally been employed by Jaina and Buddhist students, the latter primarily Mahāyāna Buddhists. Further, Indo-Aryan is recognized within the constitution of Republic of India as each a classical language and an officer language and continues to be employed in donnish, literary, and technical media, in addition as in periodicals, radio, television, and film.
3) Egyptian :
Egyptian language, extinct language of the river vale that constitutes a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. The Semitic, Cushitic, Chadic, Omotic, and Amazigh (Berber) language Terms represent the remaining members of the phylum.
On the premise of ancient texts, scholars typically divide the history of Egyptian language into 5 periods: previous Egyptian (from before 3000 to regarding 2200 BCE), Middle Egyptian (c. 2200–c. 1600 BCE), Late Egyptian (c. 1550–c. 700 BCE), Demotic (c. 700 BCE–c. 400 CE), and Coptic (c. 2nd century CE till a minimum of the seventeenth century). Thus, 5 literary dialects ar differentiated. These language periods consult with the communication solely, which frequently differed greatly from the spoken dialects. Coptic continues to be in religion use (along with Arabic) among the Arabic-speaking miaphysite Christians of Egypt.
Word formation in Egyptian is analogous to the “root and pattern” system found across the Afro-Asiatic language phylum.
In such systems, consonantal “roots” that indicate the overall which means of a word be part of with vocalic “patterns” that make a lot of specific which means. Associate in Nursing example in English would be the distinction between the words wake and woke, within which the foundation root root a basic notion of “being awake” and combines with the patterns -a-e and -o-e to make verbs of a specific tense. In ancient Egyptian texts, roots were preponderantly composed of 3 consonants, and vowels were omitted.
4) Hebrew :
Hebrew language, Semitic language of the Northern Central (also referred to as Northwestern) group; it’s closely associated with Phoenician and Moabite, with that it’s typically placed by students in a very Canaanite subgroup.
Spoken in earlier period in Palestine, Hebrew was supplanted by the western accent of Aramaic starting regarding the third century BC; the language continued to be used as a rite and literary language, however. it had been revived as a language within the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and is that the official language of Israel.
Modern Hebrew, supported the biblical language, contains many inventions designed to satisfy trendy needs; it’s the sole conversational speech supported a written communication. The pronunciation could be a modification of that utilized by the Sephardic (Hispano-Portuguese) Jews instead of that of the Ashkenazic (East European) Jews.
The previous guttural consonants don’t seem to be clearly distinguished (except by Oriental Jews) or are lost.
The syntax is predicated on it of the sacred writing. Characteristic of Hebrew of all stages is that the use of word roots consisting typically of 3 consonants, to that vowels and alternative consonants ar additional to derive words of various elements of speech and that means. The language is written from right to left in a very Semitic script of twenty-two letters.
5) Greeck :
Greeck language, Indo-European spoken primarily in Balkan nation. it’s an extended and well-documented history—the longest of any Indo-European language—spanning thirty four centuries. there’s Associate in Nursing Ancient section, divided into a metropolis amount (texts in script genuine from the fourteenth to the thirteenth century BCE) and Archaic and Classical periods (beginning with the adoption of the alphabet, from the eighth to the fourth century BCE); a principle and Roman phase (4th century BCE to 4th century CE); a Byzantine phase (5th to fifteenth century CE); and a contemporary section.
Separate transcription tables for Classical and Greek accompany this text. Some variations in transcription result from changes in pronunciation of the Greek language; others mirror convention, as for instance as an example (chi or khi), that was transliterated by the Romans as ch (because they lacked the letter k in their usual alphabet). In Modern Greek, however, the quality transcription for χ is kh. Another distinction is that the illustration of β (bēta or víta); in Classical Greek it’s transliterated as b in each instance, and in Hellenic as v. The pronunciation of Hellenic vowels is indicated by the transcription utilized by the Romans. Υ (upsilon) was written as y by the Romans, indicating that the sound wasn’t similar to the sound of their letter i. Hellenic υ (ípsilon) is transliterated as i, indicating that the sound used these days differs from that of the traditional υ.
6 ) Basque :
Basque language, additionally known as Euskara or Euskera, language isolate, the sole remnant of the languages spoken in southwestern Europe before the region was Romanized within the 2d through first century BCE. The Basque language is preponderantly employed in a neighborhood comprising roughly three,900 sq. miles (10,000 sq. kilometres) in Kingdom of Spain and France.
There also are important numbers of Basque speakers elsewhere in Europe and within the Americas. though few statistics area unit offered, the amount of speakers, WHO area unit for the most part bilingual, was calculable within the early twenty first century to be approaching a million.
In Kingdom of Spain the Basque country contains the province of Guipúzcoa, elements of Vizcaya (Biscay) and Navarra (Navarre), and a corner of Álava. The French Basque country is centred within the western region of the département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques. The Basques derived their self-name, Euskaldunak, from Euskara, the ethnonym for the language.
The Basque language earned official standing for a brief amount (1936–37) throughout the Spanish warfare. In 1978, Basque and Castilian Spanish became the official languages of the autonomous Basque Country of Kingdom of Spain
The German humanist poet Schuchardt (1842–1927) posited a genetic affiliation between Basque, Iberian (the long-extinct language of the traditional inscriptions of japanese Espana and of the Mediterranean coast of France), and therefore the Afro-Asiatic languages.
Despite wonderful coincidences in phonemics, Basque has to date contributed very little to the understanding of the Iberian texts. this implies that the similarity in sound systems might have resulted from shut contact between Basques and Iberians and not from a genetic linguistic relationship. Somewhat equally, studies once Schuchardt’s haven’t found common linguistic characteristics between Basque and therefore the Afro-Asiatic languages. Some common options, however, do recommend a relationship between Basque and therefore the Caucasian languages .
7 ) Lithuanian :
Lithuanian language, Lithuanian Lietuviu Kalba, East Baltic most closely associated with Latvian; it’s spoken primarily in Lithuania, wherever it’s been the official language since 1918. it’s the foremost archaic Indo-European still spoken.
A Lithuanian literary language has been breathing since the sixteenth century, the earliest document being translations of the Lord’s Prayer, a creed, and therefore the Hail Mary, created concerning 1525. This language, used alone for writings of a spiritual character, differs in several respects from trendy Lithuanian; so, it’s longer types of some grammatical endings than will trendy literary Lithuanian, has 2 a lot of cases, shows stronger influences from Slavic in its vocabulary and syntax, and differs from the trendy commonplace language in accentuation. Most of those characteristics survived through the primary 1/2 the seventeenth century.
Three literary accents were in use within the nineteenth century: a coffee Lithuanian dialect on the sea coast, Associate in Nursing East High Lithuanian poetic accent, and a West High Lithuanian accent, used primarily within the region bordering East geographic area.
The trendy commonplace literary language, written during a 32-letter Latin alphabet, relies on the West High Lithuanian accent of the scholar Jonas Jablonskis (1861–1930), UN agency is taken into account to be its father.
08 ) Farsi :
Persian language, additionally called as farsi, member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. it’s the official language of Asian country, and 2 forms of Persian referred to as Iranian and Tajik area unit official languages in Islamic State of Afghanistan and Republic of Tajikistan, severally.
Trendy Persian is most closely associated with Middle and previous Persian, former languages of the region of Fārs (Persia) in southwestern Asian country. it’s therefore referred to as referred to as by native speakers. Written in Arabic characters, trendy Persian conjointly has several Arabic loanwords and an in depth literature.
Irish is a Celtic spoken in in the main ireland . There are Irish speakers within the kingdom , the USA , Canada and Australia.
According to the 2016 census, 1.76 million individuals in eire claim to talk Irish; seventy three,803 speak it daily; 111,473 speak it weekly; 586,535 speak less ofttimes, and therefore the rest seldom speak it. the most concentrations of Irish speakers square measure within the Gaeltachtaí, that square measure scattered chiefly on the geographic region of eire and have a complete population of ninety six,090. on the average sixty six of Gaeltacht residents will speak Irish.
In 2011 the united kingdom census found that 184,898 individuals in European nation (10.65% of the population) have some data of Irish, which 104,943 of them will speak the language to some extent. Irish is that the main home language for concerning four,130 individuals in European nation [source]. in step with another supply, there square measure concerning nine,000 fluent speakers of Irish in United Kingdom. whether or not this includes European nation isn’t clear.
According to the 2005 North American country census, about 18,815 individuals spoke Irish reception within the USA, particularly within the northeastern states. There square measure Irish language courses at some universities and schools within the USA and Canada .
In 2011 1,895 individuals in Australia same that they use Irish as their home language, and it’s attainable to review fashionable and Irish at the University of Sydney .
10) Icelandic :
Icelandic language, Icelandic íslenska, national language of Iceland, spoken by the whole population, some 330,000 within the early twenty first century. It belongs (with Norwegian and Faroese) to the West Scandinavian group of Germanic languages and developed from the Norse speech brought by settlers from western Norge within the ninth and tenth centuries.
Old Icelandic, typically referred to as Germanic language, is that the language during which the Eddas, sagas, and skaldic poems were written within the Middle Ages. By the time these works were written, many non-standard speech characteristics that differentiate Icelandic from Norwegian had emerged.
Important factors within the survival of Icelandic throughout the centuries of Danish rule were its continued use for literary functions, the geographic remoteness of Iceland, a scattered population, and also the nice linguistic variations between Danish and Icelandic. whereas the Scandinavian languages in continental Europe were losing inflection, Icelandic preserved recent Scandinavian descriptive linguistics virtually intact. The native Bible became a basis for the additional development of Icelandic.
all the same, the circumstances of the language were extremely restricted till liberty developed within the nineteenth century and Icelandic was rediscovered by Scandinavian students. A firm writing on story lines was bit by bit established, and Icelandic nowadays seems strikingly totally different from the opposite Scandinavian languages.